Sunday, August 25, 2019
Are men the victims of equality in contemporary organizations - Essay Example The fact that such practices exist indicates that organizations are not gender neutral. Just like certain issues can place women in a disadvantaged position, there could be issues that can place men at disadvantage. It is this exclusion along with the perceived improvement of the position of disadvantaged groups that has contributed to the perception that men have been disadvantaged by equality (Burke and Black reading) However, with the magnitude of such special policies incorporated by organizations for women perhaps they are now putting men at a disadvantage. Besides, the gradual increase of women in workforce could pose the threat of marginalization to men in the organization. This paper discusses if men are turning into victims of equality in contemporary organizations. Given that they have always been the dominant sex and wielded power over women, can they really be victims? The paper discusses factors that may or may not contribute to menÃ¢â¬â¢s disadvantaged position. Given that men have outnumbered women in organizations it is difficult to conceive how they can be victims. Traditionally women have been perceived to be the victims of male domination in organizations. They are the ones who face the glass ceiling and find it difficult to get entry into senior positions. If they do manage to get there it becomes difficult for them to sustain at the top due to the isolation they feel from male dominated social network at top management levels. Current research builds on the findings that senior executive leadership is dominated by corporate masculinity, which accommodates women as Ã¢â¬ËtokenÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ (wallaby.vu.edu.au/adt-VVUT/uploads/approved/adt-VVUT20070911.142850/public/03Chapter2.pdf)-Sinclair 1994; Maier 1999; Halford and Leonard 2001). According to KanterÃ¢â¬â¢s Tokenism Theory (Kanter 1977-find articles) it would be the women who hold a token position in organizations. Since they have been the one to be considered
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Research on TV shows - Essay Example During 1999-2000, reality shows such as Big Brother and Survivor were a boom in the silver screen. Watching real people competing with each other or struggling against a personal battle can be great entertainment as well as inspire and motivate viewers. Makeover programs are a significant sub category of reality television where home, garden, behaviour, appearance, wardrobes are drastically transformed to meet certain standards. There is a wide range of makeover programs such as Swan, Queer eye for the straight guy, How to look good naked, Amazing Race, etc. that project peoples personal struggles with relationships, career, sports, fear, weight and physical appearance. Similarly, home improvement makeover programs such as BBCÃ¢â¬â¢s Divine Designs or ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s most popular Extreme makeover: home edition are some of the most popular programs highlighting home improvement struggles. TV ratings have proved that people love watching makeovers or transformations undergo in the matter of an hour (reality-TV. find the best). To viewers at home anything seems possible when they watch ordinary people achieve their goals. On the flip side, beauty makeover programs have also created a culture where beauty is seen as a commodity ,that ca n be bought and sold, and that a perfect physical appearance is important for self-confidence, happiness and sense of belonging. This paper will delve into two of the most important makeover shows in the history of television Ã¢â¬â ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s Extreme Makeover and Extreme Makeover: Home Edition. Differences and similarities based on identity, appearance and transformation will be discussed in details. ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s Extreme Makeover series, first started airing in November of 2002, offers both female and male contestants a complete physical transformation that centers on thousands of dollarsÃ¢â¬â¢ worth of cosmetic surgery. (Davis,
Friday, August 23, 2019
Five Common Bargains - Assignment Example Hence, I decided to buy a second hand car which would give me the opportunity to avail stylish comfort at a lower price. In this regards, I had fixed my budget at $ 15,000 which was accumulated with my savings, financial borrowing from my parents and a short-term bank loan. For the next few days I and one of my friends searched the internet, newspapers, and dealers to see where I could get a car that satisfies my aforementioned needs. Once I finished searching the internet, I found a car that I was looking for. It was from Hyundai with a quoted price of around $14,500 (Edmunds.com, 2012). After taking appointment with the dealer we went to see the car. Even though my accumulated budget was higher than the price charged I was quite concerned regarding the negotiation and testing of the quality of the product as it was an already used car. While negotiating over the price and the features of the car, I came to know that the actual selling price of the car that was quoted as $14,500 on the website, when include tax and insurance charges increased to around $ 17,000. However, as per the advice of my companion I decided to give another thought to the matter and inspect the other available dealers on the same car model. My survey results indicated that a Hyundai model was available at an average of $20,000 to $ 25,000 which was not significantly different from the quoted price for the used car. By the end of the day, I went back to the dealer for the final discussion and asked him to give a 10%-20% discount as the present market value of the same new Hyundai model was abou t $20,500 (Kelley Blue Book Co., Inc, 2012). Going through the service records of the car gave me enough information regarding the engine along with the details of how much the owner drove the car. I also took a test drive so that I can check the performance of the car. After having a test drive, my friend and I decided that we
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Key Skills of Management Essay 1. Introduction In this essay I have attempted to describe the key skills of management, in my opinion, and how working with others can develop them. I have drawn on my own experiences as a manager and reinforced my answers with research from the internet and other reference sources. There are various skills needed for good management, some skills are learned others are instilled as a part of that personÃ¢â¬â¢s nature. Within this essay I discuss these skills and the importance of good management behaviour. 2. Key skills my viewpoint I manage four teams, each consisting of 15 members of staff. Within each team is a supervisor whose task is to monitor the running of the operation line and to inform me of any deviation from the norm. I am privileged enough to have a support team of a quality facilitator, two fitters, an electrician and a process engineer, who I direct to assist with the events of the day. Enthusiasm and motivation I am enthusiastic and self-motivated; I maintain this through seeing issues as a challenge and an opportunity to test my skills. If I am enthusiastic then my staff will be encouraged to be motivated too, Ã¢â¬ËItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to be productive without enthusiasm.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Gates B) Henri Fayol states that there are fourteen principles of management. In principle number seven (Remuneration) Fayol argues that Ã¢â¬ËWorkers must be paid sufficiently as this is a chief motivation of employees and therefore greatly influences productivity.Ã¢â¬â¢ I personally do not feel that this is a chief motivation even though it is a factor but that job satisfaction and also a sense of belonging are greater influences in productivity. Communication I believe it is important to have a pre-shift meeting with the supervisors and run through what is planned for the day. Any concerns are raised prior to the start of the shift, so we have a clear direction of how we are going to achieve these goals. I try to keep meetings informative, constructive yet light and brisk. I feel it is important that we start the day with a can-do attitude. It is important to me that the delivery of any communication is clear, precise and accurate. Communication works two ways and I feel that we only learn by listening. I operate an open door policy, where any member of staff at any level can speak to me. Encouraging growth of people and business I want to encourage growth within the company; in order to do this I develop people by encouraging them to learn new skills and keep up-to-date with processes on the line. The rotation of staff within the production line not only benefits the operator with skills and self worth but also protects the company when manning levels are low. Control of production is constantly developing and shifts with new products, technology and tools. Clear instruction is given to staff to embrace and use these as a way forward for the success of the company and maintain our position as leaders in the world market. Following policies I follow the company policies in all aspects of my work and with discipline. I feel I am firm but fair; I nip things in the bud and deal with conflict in a calm, mature and professional manner. I am trustworthy and always deal with matters with integrity. Respect Respect plays an important role in getting results from staff. I respect everyone and work hard to earn respect from my staff by being a team player and not taking my role for granted. I have worked on every process on each line to different skill levels and am aware of the requirements of each job. I would never expect any member of staff to complete a task I would not do myself. Understanding customers It is important to understand the expectations of customers, to achieve these within the budget and on time. In order to achieve this we work closely to a plan, delivering on time and in full (OTIF). Feedback It is important that recognition is given on a regular basis to staff that are doing well and like wise, support is given to staff who find things a struggle. It is easier to rectify any non-conformance at the very beginning than letting bad habits form. The ability to explain things that are incorrect and how to rectify them is an important management quality. Resolving issues Whenever a major problem comes to light, I tend to bring key skilled personnel such as quality facilitators, department manager, shift manager, manufacturing supervisors, process engineers, fitters, electricians or operators into a brain storming session. We utilise the skills we have developed and use management tools such as, the Ã¢â¬ËIshikawa diagramÃ¢â¬â¢, or known to myself as the Ã¢â¬ËFishbone diagramÃ¢â¬â¢. Each personnel would have a valuable input using the knowledge that they have obtained from their own perspective. Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Figure 1: Fishbone diagram as based on the original by Kaoru Ishikawa. In these sessions, we systematically work through inputs that could cause the effect that we see and then place a frame around the problem to find out what is, and is not a possible factor. Further investigation is made into these probable causes until the root of the issue is found. It is extremely important to use all of the skills at hand to have a complete overview. 3. Conclusion Throughout this essay I have explored the use of what are in my opinion, the most important skills to have as a manager. It is not intended as an exhaustive list, but a sample of the many ways people manage. In my opinion the most important skills of management are being able to project manage and coordinate while also having leadership qualities, or personable skills. In the words of John C Maxwell, Anyone can steer the ship, but it takes a leader to chart the course. Within this essay I have explored the nature of the key skills and have shown that in working together with staff, results can be achieved by following these rules.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Empowerment Essay 1. Should a company be happy or concerned if most customers are satisfied? Satisfaction of the consumer is one of the main goals for a company to achieve. Customer satisfaction is defined as the feeling that results when an offering meets a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. Companies around the world are doing many surveys, in order to measure the satisfaction of their consumers because the importance of consumer satisfaction is one of the main factors for a company. According to the question, should a company be happy or concerned if most consumers are satisfied, the answer is concerned. The reason of this answer is that if all consumers would be satisfied then it is okay, but in this case not all consumers are satisfied, so there are some consumers who are not satisfied. The company should work hard in order to not leave space for concerns for these people who would be unsatisfied. These unsatisfied consumers would have a big influence on the company because these consumers express their concerns to other people and then other people might not want to buy anything from that company. However, one of the main strategies that companies use to achieve their goals of satisfaction is to influence the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations should be very high because if the product or service doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t meet their expectations they would be unsatisfied and have a negative perception. Marketers should make their expectations a bit lower so the service or product would exceed their expectations and then customers would be very satisfied. An example of consumer satisfaction would be like this: I usually order pizza at the restaurant called Extreme Pizza so then they deliver it at my home. They always bring it on time so they never are late, and also the food is warm. I am very satisfied with the product and service they provide to me. However, one day I heard my friend complaining about a restaurant service and then I asked him why so, and I realized that he was talking about the same restaurant that I order pizza. He said many bad things about that restaurant, then he told me that delivery is always late so then the food is cold. He also complained that he pays much more money because his house is far away from this restaurant. Therefore, I think that the reason of this problem between my friend and that restaurant is that the location of the house, so it is normal if the delivery is late and the food is cold. However, my house is near the restaurant, so I donÃ¢â¬â¢t face these problems. In the end, the difference is that I am very satisfied with their products and service but my friend is not satisfied and told everyone about the bad issue he experienced with that restaurant. To sum up in other words, all companies should be concerned with that percentage of people who are not satisfied even if the number of these people is low because negative things are spread much faster to others and positive ones. 2. Create a loyalty program for AUK with the 4 positive effects in mind Loyalty programs are a type of sales promotions defined as the efforts to reward frequent purchases or consumptions of customers. Anyhow, we have to point out the difference between loyalty and loyalty programs. Loyalty is the attitude of customers for a particular brand. It is divided in two dimensions, behavioral and attitudinal loyalty. Behavioral loyalty is a degree where customer buys the product regularly and does not respond to competitors. Attitudinal loyalty is the degree where customer prefers or likes the brand. There are four positive effects of loyalty programs longevity effect, the blocker effect, spreader effect, and the accelerator effect. Longevity effect is the process of lengthening of the lifetime value of customers by increasing their switching costs. Blocker effect is the process of blocking out marketing communications from competitors. Spreader effect is the willingness of customers to buy related products from a marketer. Accelerator effect is the process where customers speed up to make purchases in order to get to the next level of their loyalty program offers. AUK Loyalty Program The loyalty program tends to encourage customers to buy a product and make customers come again to buy the product. In AUK, students not only can pay for their tuition but also for extra lectures such as cisco, summer program etc. Moreover, AUK could have a loyalty program in a way from those students who come from the same family and town. When a student attends AUK, then he or she will have a 50% discount from the actual price for cisco. Also, summer program is one of them that make a discount for AUK students each summer. Furthermore, AUK provides a 15 % discount of price for a second person from the same family and 30% for the third. Even though, all students of AUK would have the opportunity of 20% reduction in price for work and travel during the summer in the Unites States, with the company called Ã¢â¬Å"Zip TravelÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, this loyalty program would have 4 positive effects. One of the longevity effects is that AUK attracts students from the same family to join AUK w ith a discount in price. For example, I have a friend who joined AUK last year, which he has a brother here at AUK who is going to graduate next quarter. He told me that, he did not even think to come at AUK but his brother convinced him to make such a decision and attend AUK. Also, he mentioned that AUK offers a 15% discount in price for the second person of the same family. Maybe the discount and quality that AUK provides encouraged my friend to register in. The blocker effect is also included to the loyalty program of AUK because it provides for its customers extra courses such as Cisco located in the Blue Building at AUK. All students of AUK would have 50% discount in price if they want to take those IT classes. Therefore, when students hear about this offer, they do not bother to go somewhere else and take these classes because this offer with a cheaper price is all right. Therefore, this is how AUK loyalty program blocks out marketing communication from competitors. The spreader effect would be also included to the loyalty program of AUK. For example, I know a friend who participates in every summer program that AUK offers. He told me that, he is very satisfied with the lectures and professors of AUK and that AUK offers a discount for its students who want to participate in the summer program. These are the reasons why he enjoys taking every year classes at AUK during the summer season. Therefore, he is loyal to AUK and does not want to take summer courses in other countries as some students do. The accelerator effect is also one of the loyalty programs included at AUK. An example that AUK offers would be that if in AUK are three students that come from the same family, the second would have 15% discount and the third would have 30% discount. By this offer AUK attracts its students to invite its family member attend at AUK because of the price discount they offer to them. If my brother would come next year at AUK, he would get 15% discount in price, but also if in the following year would come my sister then she would have 30% discount which is a very good offer in attracting more people. In other words, the more people of your family, much cheaper it would cost to you.
Causes and Effects of Debt and Recessions The great Depression in parts of World As we mentioned before, the Great Depression mainly started in the United States, but the U.S. was not the only state that was affected by it. Other states around the world were also affected by the economic recession of 1930s. Herbert Hoover, the president of the United States during the years of the Great Depression, attempted to recover the country by establishing some internal and external policies. HooverÃ¢â¬â¢s believe was that too much interference of the federal government would end AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence and self-determination. Hoover also created projects to increase the public worksÃ¢â¬â¢ funding, but they only created jobs for a small part of the unemployed people. Then in October 1931, Hoover set up the National Credit Corporation (NCC) in an attempt to calm the money deficiency. However, this program failed because it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t satisfy the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. In 1932, Hoover was the one who requested that Congress set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) to make mortgages to businesses but in the end it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t succeed. In 1932, Congress passed the Emergency Relief and Construction Act to support for a federal relief. Yet, this program couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t invert the collapse during the Great Depression. Because Hoover failed to recover the United States, social unrest and violence began to surface while the depression deepened. Unemployed workers, relief recipients, and unpaid schoolteachers piled up together and performed demonstrations to show their disappointment. Even though Hoover initiated some internal programs to help the recovery of economy, he was slow to respond to the depression. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff In 1932 Hoover signed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff. It increased the tariffs by 50%. The increase of the tariff with 50% will make the imported goods more expensive and the people will buy the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s goods which led to the increase of demand.-But the countries of Europe reacted with the increase of their tariffs which decreased the exports of USA ~ 70%. The war of trade impacted further the prices of agricultural goods which decreased more and then more farmers bankrupted. The tariffs damaged not only American farmers, but they damaged the German unstable economy too. Germany started to pay the reparation to France and UK based on the Versailles Treaty. UK and France decreased the payments to loans that they had from the banks of USA which further weakened the banks in USA. War debts at the end of World War I All European nations had to pay over $10 billion ($115 billion in 2002 dollars) to USA. The economies of Europe had been destroyed from the war, therefore they hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t the money to pay back of. While USA requested the money back from former allies, this enforced the requests of European Countries to Germany to pay the reparations based on the Versailles Treaty, but Germany could not pay these reparations. This situation worsened the crisis since Europe could not buy goods from the USA. The decline of world trade helped to bring the great depression. FDR New Deal Following the Social Unrest of 1932, the people had blamed Hoover for failing to recover the States from the Great Depression. When Franklin D. Roosevelt came to power on March 1933, many thought that he was strived to end the Great Depression completely. During his campaigns, he promised to help the poor farmers, unemployed people, and also the elderly. Other than declaring a bank holiday, Roosevelt had created a new program for the economic recovery called the New Deal, which aimed to help the jobless, to recover the the economy, and prevent another depression. Here is a list of the New Deal programs and their purposes: The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) provided jobs for the unemployed from age 17 to 29. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) helped by paying the states so they could give money and clothing for the unemployed people. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) paid farmers to stop growing specified crops, such as cotton, grain, tobacco, and corn. The National Recovery Administration (NRA) regulated wages, price control, and economic conditions in the industry. The Public Works Administration (PWA) made possible the construction of ports, schools, and aircraft carriers. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) employed many unskilled people to do public work projects. In 1934, FDR launched the Second New Deal which was more concentrated on increasing purchases and public social security. The Second New Deal programs dealt with reforming and also recovery. Some of Second New Deal programs and their purposes are listed below: The Social Security Act, sought to help the old people by setting up a pension system. The act also gave the States money to aid dependent children and people with disabilities. The National Labor Act, created a National Labor Relations Board for protecting the organized labor rights. The second AAA, established in 1928(verify 1928 apo 1938), was established for agriculture recovery to pay farmers for conservation methods, but only if they limited the necessary crop production. U.S. Housing Authority Act, established in 1937 in order to construct better house buildings by demolishing ghettos. Eventually, the New Deal that FDR launched couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t end the Great Depression since many agricultural problems were left unsolved. It is still dubious at how the Deal programs helped ending the depression. The Deal did, however, restore hope that was missing in the United States during the depression and also eased the hardships of its economy even though by the end of 1930s the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was still bad. The major change of USA Economy happened after the event of Pearl Harbor which noted the entry of USA in World War II. The people and industry of USA were in the functionality of war. The warÃ¢â¬â¢s weapons were needed urgently All the people worked for the war, the men trained to in order to be soldiers while the women worked in fabrics. There were the urgent needs for the Food for inside country and overseas at the war front. The entrance of the USA in World War II finished the Great Depression in the USA B. Worldwide Impact The Depression was followed by a global collapse of the industrial economy in Europe and the U.S., which also brought political and economic tension on every society. Furthermore, the depression brought a sequence of difficulties in the West and economic flaws in the world.As we mentioned, the starting of Great Depression is typically linked to the Crash of the stock market on October 29, 1929. However, in some countries it started by early 1928. In the same way, while the ending of Great Depression is related with the entrance of the USA to World War II in 1941, in different countries it finished at different times. The USAÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was growing in the middle of 1938 while many countries around the world were hurt by the Great Depression, those industrialized and also those that exported raw materials. Effects of Great Depression worldwide United States Most people see that the Great Depression had its starting point in the United States in 1933, when more than 15 million Americans were unemployed and the economic production decreased by almost 50%. Canada The Depression also hit Canada very hard, with the unemployed labor force 30%. The unemployment rate was less than 12% at the starting of World War Two. Australia Australia was affected hard too. The salaries dropped and the unemployment was 32% by 1931 Europe After World War II, most European countries owned a lot of money to American banks but the loans were so high and they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay them. Since the American government didnÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the debt, Europe started borrowing money to pay back. However, as the economy of USA started to slow down, the European countries founded in difficulty where to borrow money. Further the United States had the high tariffs. European countries couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t sell the products in markets of USA. These countries started to have the failure to pay the loans. After the crash of stock market banks stayed afloat. They recalled their loans. While the money ran out of Europe and returned to USA, the European economies started to go down separately. The farmers throughout faced the food overproduction and the low price. The production of food had increased in the reply to needs of war. Many farmers bought the new equipment borrowing heavily, believing that the good market will continue to be higher. But the increase of production in Europe and the high imports from USA caused the decrease of the price, which made the payment of the debts very hard. The farmers leaved the rural areas. The international trade of Europe with USA decreased significantly during the depression period mainly due to the establishment by U.S government of Smoot-Hawley Tariff Policy in 1930 which applied 50% tariff to imported goods. The U.S government formed this policy in order to help and protect the companies of USA by increasing the demand for domestic goods. But, the charging with a high tariff of the goods from imports dropped the trade between USA and other foreign countries, including Europe, so created unemployment out of the country while the factories closed up. Kinderberger (1986) shows that during 1933 international trade decreased by 33% compared to the trade in 1929. France Despite being affected by the World War I, France wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t affected that much compared to the other European countries during the Great Depression, since it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t dependent in trade. By 1930s, the country was characterized by high unemployment and political anxiety. Germany After the First World War, Germany was angry for losing their territory and paying war debts, while America provided loans in order to rebuild German economy. But, these loans stopped during the Depression causing the rising of unemployment and the development of extremism in the political system. In 1921, Germany made the first compensation payment and one year later they claimed that they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to manage paying any longer. The reasons because German people put their faith in Hitler were because of their humiliation, the enormous debt, and the economic crisis after World War I. Nazi Germany, which boasted the economy and reached full employment, kept low level of wages while not harmonizing the allocation of investments and constantly growing its dependence from military production. Poland During the Great Depression, Poland, the newly independent country, experienced a quick and deep recession. The economy grew in the 1920s by attracting foreign wealth and loans. Then in 1929, a financial crash made the capital flow reduce and eventually the prices of agricultural products fell. The severe results of the economic collapse were social, being accompanied with high unemployment and low wages of agricultural workers. The total production of industry in 1932 was ~40% less than in 1928. But, the economy of Poland had developed by 1934 and increased past 19% in 1937. Because of this, the Polish government wanted to acquire capital in private and launched a strategy called the Ã¢â¬Å"Polish EtatismÃ¢â¬ . The strategy permitted the polish government to take control of the saving banks, the operation of foreign exchange, cartels and foreign trade. Additionally it influenced a huge investment program in public labor and the private actions. One projectthat was a great achievem ent was the Central Industrial District development in 1936, which was concentrated on the military, transportation, agricultural, industrialization, and urbanization improvement. Romania In Romania, the sector that was hit very hard was the agricultural one where the government earnings fell because of the decline of the agriculture products exports. By 1932, the taxes fell and the government began to aid the poor by forcing their repaymentÃ¢â¬â¢s delay. However, during the depression, the government needed with any cost the fiscal balance so it was hard for it to intervene in the economy. During the first years, there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t any understandable plan with the goal to fight depression, but instead to fight the most important problems. Furthermore, Romania had a huge problem with the foreign debt. Since European states couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t take loan to deal with their debts, import limits were increased and in 1932 the control on exchange was established. The industry of Romania managed to recover during the 1930s, however the most of people were too poor to impact the increase of consumption and demands, and in addition the developments in foreign markets could not help since they became protectionists as effect of Depression. Greece During the inter-war period, in Greece was present a strong belief in favor of financial independence and nationwide autonomy. Derilis and Costis (2006) claimed that this ideology could have been changed into an actual policy in 1932. The economy was focused more internally and was led by the state, which was to some degree a reaction to the other nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ activities that broadly presented controls on trade and fees. High taxes, determinable restrictions and the use of mutual clearing agreements were broadly utilized. The state involvement in economic issues increased throughout the 1930s. The guideline of Greek Economy was now the greater independence using the inside resources and less dependence from the international economy. This tendency was noticeable in both industry and agriculture (Aldcroft, 2006). Yugoslavia In reality Yugoslavia was not hit particularly hard by the crisis, though the peasants faced the worst, being unable to pay and calling for the government action to relieve them of their debts. The government reduced taxes for the farming communities and eliminated debts for about 600, 000 small farmers. The government`s response to the crisis was under heavy French influence. The government tried to balance the budget and National Bank started promoting deflationary monetary policy, and imposed exchange control in 1931. Soon the government recognized the error of its economic policy and in 1933 started to pursue more expansionary fiscal policy, which soon turned deflation into inflation. The government was also spending money on public works, and was actively trying to influence the commercial banks to lower their interest rates. Comparing the Great Depression and the Economic Crisis of 2008 There have been a lot of comments and misconceptions about the comparison of the Great Depression and the Great Credit Crisis of 2008. Both of them were originated in US and then spread out the world. The Trade, capital flow and policies on prices of commodities were the factors which spread worldwide the Great Depression. Depending from their specifics and the above factors, different countries faced different effects. For example, France was almost passive, whiles some other countries, such as Japan, was affected and used largely the monetary and fiscal policies during that period. On the contrary, the Great Credit Crises was global, started in US and with bigger influence in US. It impacted the global world economy with even worse effects in other countries exports, production and equity prices decline. But in the similar way with the measures taken during the Great Depression, different countries reacted in different ways. Some countries applied more aggressive monetary and fiscal policies; some other applied less aggressive ones. Summary The crash of the stock market on October 1929 wan not the cause of Great Depression. It was a symptom. It was followed by the bank closing crisis which reduced largely the money flow in the country, drop of demands and production and increase of unemployment as well. The major causes of the depression were the wrong policies established by the Federal Reserve, wrong ration of investments in production vs. the salaries, overproduction in industry and agriculture, and inequality of wealth distribution. Other factors such as the needs for the reconstruction of economy, the needs for renovation of old industry and railway rods, massive people migration and natural ecologic disasters influenced badly the economy during the Great depression. The measures taken by the President Hoover administration in order to ease the effects of depressions were late and not sufficient while most of them failed. President Roosevelt administration applied several measures as part of so called New Deal Programs, which were effective, helped for easing and avoiding the effects of Great Depression but did not end it. These measures returned back the hope and confidence of investors and consumers, and combined with the increased production which served the demands of WWII, created the foundation for the US economy recovery and then for a rapid development of it after the war. The great depression was not only a local USA crisis; it was global and widespread in world. The impact of it was different for each country depending from their domestic economy specifics and dependency from the world economy. In some aspects, the Great Depression worldwide effects and reaction to them, joined by the weakness and confusion in the outside foreign policies were one of the causes which pushed the world into WWII.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Conceptual Aircraft Design: APU, Pneumatic, and Environmental Control Systems Advance aircraft and spacecraft systems are so far, one of the most revise areas in aviation industry. Every year, more systems are tested, review, and redesign into better advanced applications. However, aircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s systems allocate many applications, such as the next generation in avionics and other sub-systems. With new methodologies and technological advancement in aerospace industry, aircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s systems can address better operational implementations and provide feedback for safety environments. In recent years, most aircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s systems has shaped the way in which aviation is heading. A focus on these developments is the systems redesigning phase. Although, redesigning phases reinforce the aircraft deficiency. By acknowledging systemÃ¢â¬â¢s background, it allows better proactive and reactive processes for safety and performance. Yet, a very important aspect, is the overall endurance. Endurance approach must convey through all aircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s systems. These systems are the driving motor of the aircraft; without a proper integration, it could lead to a total structural failure. When a systems are not properly addressed as the requirement states, it is considered to be inefficient. Providing efficient work capacity through all systems is a minimum and essential condition. As part of an unending process, aviation industry is recurring to research implementations to address situational awareness regarding aircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s systems and performance. The continuity o f support to research areas, are very advantageous to this industry. It has led to address deficiencies in products, systems, services, safety factors, and human developments. APU One of the most important key... ...ich, Claudia Werner, Martin Saballus, Florian Gores. F.M. January 28- April 19, 2013. Multifunctional fuel cell system in an aircraft environment: An investigation focusing on fuel tank inerting and water generation. Aerospace Science and Technology. Retrieved 2014. For more information contact Jose Kallo to Josef.Kallo@dlr.de. And /or refer to: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S127096381300076X Ronald M. Heck, Robert J. Farrauto, Suresh T. Gulati. F.M. 2012.Catalytic Air Pollution Control: Commercial Technology. Pp. 361-372. Ã © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved 2014. For more information refer to web source: http://books.google.com/books?id=wB-sqXID5oAC&pg=PA361&lpg=PA361&dq=ozone+removal+abater&source=bl&ots=u3drio74zp&sig=HDoj-Hz_veJCM7ady5fcanS2x7Y&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jLj3UvbEFcaIyAHZ5YGgBg&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ozone%20removal%20abater&f=false